By Mr. Michael Donnelly, Professor Murray Straus
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Conceptually, the basic process of natural selection is simple: there is variability in populations of living organisms; some of this variability is heritable; and certain individuals, by virtue of Corporal Punishment in Primates 23 their characteristics, are more likely than others to survive and reproduce. This process leads to genetic changes in populations across generations as the descendants of some individuals outnumber the descendants of others. The physical and behavioral traits of individuals who do not leave descendants will die out, while the traits that help aid an individual to survive and reproduce effectively will continue to be passed on in a population.
This expression is usually accompanied by a sudden jerking motion of the head or body toward the offender. When mothers are trying to restrict the activity of their juvenile offspring, they use a combination of contact aggression and noncontact threats. For adolescent offspring, noncontact threats usually convey enough information, and they are rarely ever followed by contact aggression. Corporal Punishment in Primates 31 The Economics of Corporal Punishment Parental-investment theory predicts that the level of parent-offspring conﬂict should be related to the disparity between the cost/beneﬁt functions for parents and offspring.
Experimental tests of squirrel monkey mother-infant dyads have demonstrated that infants show the same intensity of physiological stress response as their mothers when they are in a dangerous situation (Weiner and Levine 1992). When confronted with novel and potentially dangerous situations in our captive vervet colony, older infants stayed near their mothers and matched their mothers’ degree of boldness or caution (Fairbanks and McGuire 1993). Young monkeys appear to be very sensitive to their mothers’ level of alarm and respond appropriately without being punished.
Corporal Punishment of Children in Theoretical Perspective by Mr. Michael Donnelly, Professor Murray Straus