By Gabor Forgacs, Stuart A. Newman
In the course of improvement cells and tissues suffer alterations in trend and shape that hire a much broader diversity of actual mechanisms than at the other time in an organism's lifestyles. This ebook demonstrates how physics can be utilized to investigate those organic phenomena. Written to be obtainable to either biologists and physicists, significant phases and parts of the organic improvement approach are brought after which analyzed from the point of view of physics. The presentation of actual versions calls for no arithmetic past uncomplicated calculus.
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Extra info for Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo
The resulting gradient in the surface tension sets up a ﬂow of cortical elements from the pole region towards the equator (right panel), which eventually results in a contractile ring and a constricting cleavage furrow. to shear and produce a ﬂow in the peripheral cytoplasm, according to v σ =η . η is the viscosity of the cortical cytoplasm. (Note that Eq. 6 is analogous to Eq. , ‘‘muscular”) elements from the polar region to the equator (see Fig. 9), where during this rearrangement a spontaneous alignment of actin and myosin ﬁlaments into an organized ring takes place.
If the spindle’s position is physically manipulated (translated or rotated) before the furrow is fully established, the cell assembles the contractile ring so as to retain its relative orientation to the spindle. If the formation of the spindle is blocked (by the addition of chemicals such as colchicine, which disrupts microtubules), no furrow is formed. If the spindle is disrupted or even completely removed from the cell after the cleavage plane has fully been established (Hiramoto, 1968), however, the separation of the two daughter cells will progress to completion.
Its cytoplasm has the same composition throughout the cell cortex and it thus possesses an isotropic surface tension (Yoneda, 1973). The only structure that can select a direction and thus the actual position of the cleavage plane is the mitotic spindle. Indeed, the cleavage plane is always perpendicular to this structure. If the spindle’s position is physically manipulated (translated or rotated) before the furrow is fully established, the cell assembles the contractile ring so as to retain its relative orientation to the spindle.
Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo by Gabor Forgacs, Stuart A. Newman