By E. D. Eanes, A. S. Posner (auth.), Harald Schraer (eds.)
The deposition of calcium-containing salts is a frequent phenomenon in either the plant and animal kingdoms. Its prevalence indicates a generalized organic variation to environments wealthy in calcium. certainly, the Archaean ocean was once wealthy in calcium carbonate, and strains of historical organisms were present in lime stones envisioned to be approximately 2. 7 billion years outdated. the elemental nature of organic calcification makes it a topic of curiosity not just to the coed of calcium metabolism and skeletal body structure, but additionally to biologists quite often. As in lots of parts of organic technology contemporary development during this box has been fast, and no try out used to be made the following to hide the entire organic structures within which calcifica tion is a crucial aspect of the organisms' approach to operation. Calcification is approached during this quantity on the degrees of the mobile websites and molecular mechan isms which are fascinated by this strategy. The ultrastructural and chemical gains of the cells and their items that are linked to calcification are empha sized in numerous chapters. The editor, in inviting contributions from authors, in tended that jointly the chapters should still express a feeling of the ever-present and crucial nature of the function of calcification in different phyla of the plant and animal kingdoms. The researchers have been biochemists, actual chemists, mobilephone biologists and physiologists; a few represented medication and dentistry; all have been drawn to calcification.
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Additional resources for Biological Calcification: Cellular and Molecular Aspects
D. EANES, R. A. HARPER, and I. ZIPKIN. 1963. X-ray diffraction analysis of the effect of fluoride on human bone apatite. Arch. , 8: 549-570. - - - and A. PERLOFF. 1957: Apatites deficient in divalent cations. J. Res. Nat. Bur. Standards, 58: 279-286. - - - A . PERLOFF, and A. F. DIORIO. 1958. Refinement of the hydroxyapatite structure. , 11:308-309. - - - and S. R. STEPHENSON. 1953. Isomorphous substitution in enamel apatite. J. Amer. Dent. , 46:257-264. ROBINSON, R. A. 1966. The structural organization of bone tissue.
1960) observed thin, well-oriented, filamentous structures in non decalcified sections of developing rat enamel and interpreted their findings as suggesting that the organic matrix of enamel consisted largely of a fibrous protein. However, Ronnholm (1962a) has shown that the thin "filaments" often observed in nondecalcified sections of developing enamel represent lateral views of the newly-formed and ribbon-shaped apatite crystals. Ronnholm (1962c) observed numerous crossbridges in the organic matrix of decalcified embryonic human enamel and concluded that enamel protein was organized as a three-dimensional network of crossbridged septa with an average thickness of 80 A.
In this study, 20 to 25 percent of the €-amino groups of bone were not reactive with FDNB after complete decalcification. These values are not far different from the 33 percent of the €-amino groups said to be unavailable in soft tissue collagen. The authors attribute the discrepancy between the values reported in their previous publication and those given in the later study to the use in the former work of a low, incorrect value for the recovery of €-DNP lysine after hydrolysis. In addition, treatment of bone with FDNB, under the usual aqueous conditions (67 percent ethanol to 33 percent water), markedly altered the mineral phase as FDNB spontaneously hydrolyzed in water, releasing fluoride.
Biological Calcification: Cellular and Molecular Aspects by E. D. Eanes, A. S. Posner (auth.), Harald Schraer (eds.)