By Michael A. Lebowitz
A very transformed version of his vintage quantity, Michael Lebowitz's Beyond Capital explores one of many nice debates between Marx students, that of the consequences of Marx's uncompleted works. Lebowitz specializes in the facet of the employees, which, he argues, was once now not built in Marx's Das Kapital and which used to be to be the topic of his meant booklet on wage-labor. Beyond Capital criticizes the one-sidedness of a lot of Marxist proposal and argues that Marx's political economic climate of the operating classification and how during which people produce themselves via their struggles are important for going past capital.
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Extra info for Beyond Capital: Marx's Political Economy of the Working Class
Even if wages were to rise, Marx (echoing Schultz) argued that the rising social standard would limit any gain in satisfaction: The rapid growth of productive capital brings about an equally rapid growth of wealth, luxury, social wants, social enjoyments. Thus, although the enjoyments of workers have risen, the social satisfaction that they give has fallen in comparison with the increased enjoyments of the capitalist, which are inaccessible to the worker, in comparison with the state of development of society in general (Marx, 1849: 216).
Marx saw this development of real wealth (regarded materially), the development of the many-needed social being, as part of the historic role of capital. Further, just as capital fosters the emergence of a new social being rich in needs, it also produces a being rich in labouring The Missing Book on Wage-Labour 39 potential who is no longer the bearer of one specialized social function – ‘the totally developed individual, for whom the different social functions are different modes of activity he takes up in turn’ (Marx, 1977: 618).
It is the consumer who determines its utility’ (Marx, 1847a: 118). Yet those consumers who determine the utility or use-value of products (that is, determine that products are use-values) are themselves beings within a particular society. Rather than considering their judgements as totally subjective and emanating from an eternal human nature, Marx argued that the reference point was necessarily society itself: The consumer is no freer than the producer. His estimation depends upon his means and his needs.
Beyond Capital: Marx's Political Economy of the Working Class by Michael A. Lebowitz