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Britannica Educational Publishing's Bacteria and Viruses PDF

By Britannica Educational Publishing

ISBN-10: 1615303766

ISBN-13: 9781615303762

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Additional info for Bacteria and Viruses

Example text

The biochemical and structural components of their cell walls are among the primary features used to classify bacteria. These features also play a role in determining their infectious properties. Bacteria are characterized further by the ability to secrete extracellular materials, by the presence of structures that enable motility or adherence to substrates, by the contents of their cytoplasm, and by the 10 7 Bacterial Morphology and Reproduction 7 Gram-negative bacilli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, isolated from a lung abscess in a patient with pneumonia.

Treponema pallidum is difficult, if not impossible, to grow in culture, probably because it requires low oxygen tension and low oxidation-reduction levels, which are provided by the presence of animal cells, rather than any specific nutrient. Because some bacteria may thrive only as animal or plant parasites or only in a rich source of nutrients such as milk, they likely do not thrive as free bacteria in nature. Many bacteria from natural environments exist in a consortium with other bacteria and are difficult to isolate and culture separately from the other members of that partnership.

The length of the E. 001 mm. As in all organisms, bacterial DNA contains the four nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), 21 7 Bacteria and Viruses 7 and thymine (T). The rules of base pairing for doublestranded DNA molecules require that the number of adenine and thymine bases be equal and that the number of cytosine and guanine bases also be equal. The relationship between the number of pairs of G and C bases and the number of pairs of A and T bases is an important indicator of evolutionary and adaptive genetic changes within an organism.

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Bacteria and Viruses by Britannica Educational Publishing

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