By Jeremy Colls
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Additional info for Air Pollution
Conventional coal and oil-fired power stations may be used in areas with tight NOx emission limits. Also, nitrogen-rich fuels such as sewage, refuse, some heating oils and waste wood can generate high NOx emissions. For such emissions, two types of flue gas denitrification (deNox) system are in use. The first, used at lower nitrogen loads, operates without a catalyst at temperatures of 850–1000 °C. Ammonia or urea is injected into the flue gas at the combustion chamber outlet. The second again involves the injection of ammonia or urea, but this time at lower temperatures (250–350 °C) in the presence of a catalyst such as vanadium pentoxide or titanium dioxide.
The Maxwell distribution means that there is a most likely velocity which is relatively low, and a long tail of reducing probabilities of finding higher speeds. For example, a hydrogen atom at 600 K (typical temperature at the top of the atmosphere) has a 10Ϫ6 chance of exceeding escape speed, while the corresponding figure for an oxygen atom is only 10Ϫ84. This process will result in a steady attrition of lighter atoms. The first evidence of single-celled life, for which this tiny oxygen concentration was an essential prerequisite, is shown in the fossil record from around 3000 million years ago.
Non-methane hydrocarbons can undergo many transformations in the atmosphere, most of which involve reactions with NO3 or OH radicals, or with O3 – during these reactions, the NMHC may form more stable or soluble species, or may become converted from gas to particle or vice versa. 15. The major emission categories are solvent use (which includes paints, adhesives, aerosols, metal cleaning and printing) and road transport. Substantial VOC emissions occur during processes such as painting (evaporation of solvents), oil production (flaring and venting of gas), oil refining (flaring and fugitive emissions), distribution of oil or refinery products (evaporation from storage, displacement losses when venting tanks), dry cleaning (final drying of clothes), use of aerosol sprays (both in the product and from the propellant), inefficient combustion of bituminous coal in domestic grates, production of alcoholic drinks (breweries and distilleries) and arable farming (crop growing, silage manufacture, sludge spreading).
Air Pollution by Jeremy Colls