By J. Gauldie (auth.), M. B. Pepys MA, MD, PhD, FRCP, MCRPath (eds.)
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Extra info for Acute Phase Proteins in the Acute Phase Response
The organism tends to respond to these changes by releasing substances, mainly proteins and hormones, into the plasma. This is how proteins, non-protein hormones and leukocytes are distributed to organs and tissues. The proteins present in plasma are synthesized mainly in the liver (Putnam 1975). The hepatocytes, therefore, have acquired, during evolution, a key role in the response to inflammation. The involvement of some of the acute phase reactants in defence reactions against tissue damage is easily explained.
Transcriptional control regions are, in general, DNA segments of length 50-100 bp, composed of modules of 10-20 base pairs, each capable of interacting with a specific nuclear factor (for a review, see Jones et al. 1988). In liver-specific promoters there is a combination of binding sites both for ubiquitous and liverspecific factors. This has been found in the mouse and rat albumin promoter (Lichtsteiner et al. 1987; Cerenghini et al. 1987), in the mouse and human aI-AT promoter and enhancer regions (Monaci et al.
The size of the increase of SAA mRNA is between 5- and lO-fold when the cells are stimulated maximally with IL-6, y-IFN or PMA. This increase is less than that produced by IL-1 (>50fold). Cis-acting Sequences Responsible for PMA Induction of SAA In order to study the mechanism of the regulation of human SAA gene expression, we have characterized the 5' flanking region of the gene SAAg9 by DNA sequence analysis (Fig. 2). 3) (Edbrooke et al. 1989). Since PMA is known to induce nuclear DNA-binding proteins, we performed gel retardation assays to see if PMA also induces a nuclear DNA-binding protein in our system (Edbrooke et al.
Acute Phase Proteins in the Acute Phase Response by J. Gauldie (auth.), M. B. Pepys MA, MD, PhD, FRCP, MCRPath (eds.)