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By Carlton J. H. Hayes

Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) used to be additionally positive: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with out predicament; in go back for this concession England decreased the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 was once no longer unfavourable both, for it tested universal alternate rules, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the in simple terms own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which have been inaugurated (1603) through the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded below the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies below the name of the dominion of significant Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); persisted Decline of Royal strength Upon the loss of life of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: in line with the Act of payment (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the recent king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the complex traditions of parliamentary executive, used to be neither capable nor worried to rule, yet was once content material purely to reign. The company of management, hence, used to be passed over to a bunch of ministers who strove not just to delight their royal grasp yet to keep the good-will of the foremost get together in Parliament. Sidenote: upward push of the cupboard seeing that this tradition, with the various customs that have grown up approximately it, has develop into a such a lot crucial a part of the govt. of the uk at the present time, and has been copied lately via many different international locations, you will need to comprehend its early historical past. Even ahead of the accession of the Tudors, the nice Council of nobles and prelates which had instructed and assisted early kings in concerns of management had surrendered so much of its genuine capabilities to a ranking or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip turned unwieldy,...

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Extra resources for A political and social history of modern Europe

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West of Bokhara the route branched out. Some caravans went north of the Caspian, through Russia to Novgorod and the Baltic. Other caravans passed through Astrakhan, at the mouth of the Volga River, and terminated in ports on the Sea of Azov. Still others skirted the shore of the Caspian Sea, passing through Tabriz and Armenia to Trebizond on the Black Sea. ] especially Venice, Genoa, Pisa, and Florence, although Marseilles and Barcelona had a small share. From Italy trade-routes led through the passes of the Alps to all parts of Europe.

Boyesen, The History of Norway (1886), a brief popular account in ”Story of the Nations” Series. Muscovy: V. O. Kliuchevsky, A History of Russia , trans. with some abridgments by C. J. Hogarth, 3 vols. to close of seventeenth century (1911-1913), latest and, despite faulty translation, most authoritative work on early Russian history now available in English; Alfred Rambaud, Histoire de la Russie depuis les origines jusqu’`a nos jours , 6th ed. completed to ´ 1913 by Emile Haumant (1914), a brilliant work, of which the portion down to 1877 has been trans.

V´amb´ery, The Story of Hungary (1886) in ”Story of the Nations” Series; Count Julius Andr´assy, The Development of Hungarian Constitutional Liberty , trans. by C. Arthur and Ilona Ginever (1908), the views of a contemporary Magyar statesman on the constitutional development of his country throughout the middle ages and down to 1619, difficult to read. For the Ottoman Turks and the Balkan peoples: Stanley Lane-Poole, Turkey (1889), in ”Story of the Nations” Series, best brief introduction; A. H.

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A political and social history of modern Europe by Carlton J. H. Hayes

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